Važnost Hidžre 3-dio (The significance of the Hijra 3-part)

Važnost Hidžre 3-dio

Slide1Važnost Hidžre nije ograničen na historiju islama ili muslimane. Hidžra ne samo da je preoblikovala – društveno i politički – arapski poluotok, ali je imala utjecaj na cijelu svijetsku civilizaciju.

Kroz historiju islama, migracija je prelazak linija između dva glavna razdoblja, u pogledu na poruku islama; Makanskog i Medininskog perioda (ili dvije ere) . U svojoj suštini, to bi značilo prelazak iz jedne faze u drugu:

Tranzicija iz pozicije slabosti, gdje su nevjernici Meke naročito naroda (pleme) Kurejš ponižavali, mučili i ubijali muslimane. Ovdje je muslimanima bilo dozvoljeno da se brane, i da ako mogu pobjede svoje protivnike.

Tranzicija širenja islama kroz individualnu Davu (pozivajući druge u islam) širenje islama kroz instituciju, inicirana od strane države. Ili širenje islama institucionalno.

Tranzicija (prelazak) iz pozicije u kojoj muslimani predstavljaju malu grupu ljudi (manjinu) okruženu neprijateljima i prijetnjom sa smrću, na poziciju regionalne snage sa jakim centralnim rukovodstvom.

Tranzicija Dave (poziva u islam) iz regionalizma, u kojem je se fokusiralo samo na Kurejšije i plemena u okolni Meke, u fazu univerzalizma. Ovo je period gdje se muslimanska država počela širiti i dopirati do Perzije, Egipta i Bizantije.

Tranzicija iz male grupice vjernika, u formiranje islamskog ummeta (naroda). Ovo je organizovana islamska država, sa centralnim rukovodstvom i drugih organizacija.

Tranzicija, jedna od najvažnijih za prve muslimane, u fazu u kojoj islam nije samo čin obožavanja, (ibadeta) već način i koncept života. Ovo obuhvata politiku, ekonomiju, socijalne interakcije i svaki drugi aspekt života. Ovo je bio prvi put kada je islam gledan kao sveobuhvatna religija.

Ovaj poređenje između dva razdoblja, jasno je uočljiv u kur’anskim diskusijama. Učenjaci kažu za dijelove Kur’ana koji je objavljen u Meki kao mekanski a onaj koji je objavljen u Medini kao medinski. Oni ajeti ili sure koje su objavljene u Meki fokusirani su na Tevhid ili jednoću Allaha dž,š. Dok medinski dijelovi su više fokusirani na pravila u vezi islamskog života općenito (šerijat).

Nema nikakve sumnje da je migracija Poslanika Muhameda a,s, u Medinu bio ključni događaj, koji je uspostavio Islamsku civilizaciju. Ova je civilizacija cvjetala vijekovima.

 Hidžra, prekretnica islamske historije

Hidžra, bez sumnje je zapalia svjetlo nade u srcima prvih muslimana koji su postavili blistavi primjer za sve muslimane koji dođu nakon njih, u svakoj generaciji, da ih oponašaju. Hidžra, u suštini, je proces prijenosa boljoj situaciji. To nije značilo da pronađe udobno mjesto za opuštanje. Umjesto toga, to je potraga za okruženjem koje je povoljnije za kontinuiranue i konstruktivne napore. Odmah nakon dolaska u Medinu, Poslanik a,s, je poduzeo cijeli proces da uspostavi vjernu i jaku zajednicu. Ovo je značajan aspekt i važna lekcija iz Hidžre za nas danas.

Allah kaže u suri At-Tawbah 20-22: U većoj su časti kod Allaha oni koji vjeruju i koji se iseljavaju i koji se bore na Allahovu putu zalažući imetke svoje i živote svoje; oni će postići što žele. Gospodar njihov im šalje radosne vijesti da će im milostiv i blagonaklon biti i da će ih u džennetske bašče uvesti, u kojima će neprekidno uživati, vječno i zauvijek će u njima boraviti. Uistinu, u Allaha je nagrada velika.

Hidžra je bila jedan od najvažnijih događaja u povijesti islama. Upravo iz tog razloga Omer r,a, je usvojio Hidžretski datum za računjanje godine. Muslimani su izabrali Hidžru kao tačku računanja. U fizičkom smislu, Hidžra je putovanje između dva grada oko 200 (416 km) milja udaljenim jedno od drugog, ali je u svom velikom značaju označilo početak razdoblja, civilizacija, kultura i povijesti za cijelo čovječanstvo. Islam je uznapredovao ne samo od fizičke Hidžre, već zato što su muslimani Hidžru ozbiljno shvatili u svim njenim aspektima i dimenzijama.

Kada je Poslanik a,s, učinio Hidžru iz Meke u Medinu, on nije zamjenio svoje prebivalište ili uzeo kao utočište u drugi grad, čim je stigao u Medinu započeo je transformaciju i napredak tog grada u svakom pogledu.

Važno je za nas da učimo i razmišljamo o stvarima koje je Poslanik a,s, radio u Medini. Postoje mnoge pouke za nas u toj povijesti i možemo naučiti mnogo stvari za naš život.

1. Džamija: Poslanik a,s, je prvo uspostavio džamiju u kojoj će se  klanjati Allahu dž,š, obavljati ibadet. On sam je radio i nosio kamenje za izgradnju džamije.

2. Islamske škole i obrazovne ustanove za zajednicu: Prva škola pod nadzorom Poslanika bila je škola Saffa. Kasnije mnoge druge škole su otvorene. Prema učenjaku Šibli Numanu, bilo je devet škola otvorenih u Medini za vrijeme Poslanika.

3. Mu’akhah ili bratimljenje: On je osnovao bratske odnose između muhadžira i ensarija. Džamija i medrese nisu bili dovoljni, ono što je također važno je imati dobre odnose između muslimana. Muslimani bi trebali imati bratstvo na temeljima vjere, a ne na osnovu plemena kao što su nekada imali prije islama, ili danas na osnovu nacionalizma koji tako rasprostranjen među današnjim muslimanima.

4. Međusobna zajednica i međuvjerski odnosi: Poslanik a,s, također je uspostavio dobre odnose s drugim zajednicama koje su živjele u Medini. Postojala je velika jevrejska zajednica, kao i nekih drugih arapskih plemena koji nisu prihvatili islam. Poslanik pripremio MISAK (Medinski ustav) za odnose između ovih zajednica.

5. Čišćenje Grada: Jesrib (Medina) je bio prljav grad. Kada su ashabi došli iz Meke u Medinu, mnogi od njih su se razbolili i nisu voljeli taj grad. Poslanik a,s, im je rekao (naredio) da očište grad i da uklone sve prljavštine. Aiša r,a, je rekla: Došli smo u Medinu i bio je najzagađenije mjesto. Voda je bilo najviše smrdljivih. Imam Buhari 1756.

6. Vodovodni sistem u gradu: Poslanik a,s, je rekao (naredio) ashabima da kopaju bunare u različitim dijelovima grada. Spominje se da je bilo više od 50 bunara u Medini, i bilo je dovoljno čiste vode za sve stanovnike medine.

7. Poljoprivreda i baštovanstvo: Poslanik a,s, je ohrabrio ashabe u obrađivanju ​​zemlje i vrtova. On im je rekao da ko obrađuje ​​mrtvo zemljište (ko oživi mrtvo zemljište) bit će njegov vlasnik. Mnogi ljudi su počeli raditi i uzgajati i ubrzo je bilo dovoljno hrane za svakoga.

8. Borba protiv siromaštva, iskorjenjivanje siromaštva: U kratkom roku se dogodilo da nije bilo siromašnih u Medini. Svako je imao dovoljno, a Poslanik a,s, je davao poklone delegacijama koje su dolazile u Medinu.

9. Bezbjednost, sigurnost, red i mir: Medina je postao najsigurniji grad na svijetu. Bilo je vrlo malo slučajeva krađe, silovanja, pijanstva ili ubistva. Ukratko, Hidžra nas uči da kad god muslimani idu negdje ili putuju, trebali bi donijeti dobrotu u tu zemlju. Muslimani trebaju da rade i za moralne i materijalne dobrote društva.

The significance of the Hijra

3-part

Slide1The significance of Hijrah is not limited to the Islamic history or to the Muslims. The Hijrah not only reshaped – socially and politically – the Arab Peninsula, but also had its impact on worldwide civilizations.

Throughout the history of Islam, the migration was a transitional line between the two major eras, regarding to the message of Islam; the era of Makah and the era of Medina. In its essence, this signified a transition from one phase to another, as follows:

Transition from the position of weakness, where the non-believers of Makah particularly the people of Quraish humiliated, tortured and killed Muslims, to the position of strength. This is where Muslims were allowed to defend themselves and were able to defeat their adversaries.

Transition form spreading Islam through individual Da’wah (inviting others to Islam) to the spreading of Islam through institutionalized Da’wah, initiated by the state.

Transition from a position where Muslims represented a small group of people, surrounded by enemies and threatened by death, to the position of a regional power with a strong central leadership. This was one that was surrounded by a large number of followers and allies.

Transition of Da’wah from regionalism, in which the focus was only on Quraish and the tribes surrounding Makah, to the phase of universalism. This is where the Muslim State began reaching out to Persia, Egypt, and the Byzantine Empire.

Transition from being a simple Islamic group of believers, to being the Islamic Ummah (nation). This is which was an organized Islamic state, with a central leadership and other organizations.

Transition, which is most significantly for early Muslims, to the phase in which Islam was not only the act of worship, but a way of life. This was encompassing (surrounding) politics, economy, social interactions and every other aspect of life. This was the first time when Islam was looked upon as a comprehensive religion.

This contrast between the two periods is clearly noticeable in the Qur’anic discourse. Muslim scholars describe the part of Qur’an that was revealed in Makah as the Makah Qur’an, and that, which was revealed in Medina as the Madini Qur’an.

Whereas the parts revealed in Makah concentrated on Tawheed (the Oneness of Allah/monotheism), the part revealed in Medina covered rules regarding Islamic life in general.

There is no doubt whatsoever that the migration of Prophet Muhammad to Medina was the crucial event, which established the Islamic civilization. This was a civilization that thrived for many centuries.

Hijrah, the turning point in Islamic history

Hijrah, no doubt, kindled the light of hope in the hearts of the early Muslims who set a shinning example for all Muslims, in every generation, to emulate. Hijrah, in essence, is a process of transfer to a better situation. It is not meant to find a comfortable place where one would relax and stop endeavor (attempt). Rather, it is a search for an environment more favorable to continuous and constructive effort. Immediately after reaching Medina, the Prophet undertook an all-embracing process to establish a faithful and strong society. This is a significant aspect and important lesson to learn from Hijrah.

In the Qur’an, Allah says in surah At-Tawbah 20-22: Those who believe, and migrate and strive in Allah’s cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of Allah: They are indeed the successful people. Their Lord does give them glad tidings of a Mercy from Himself, of His good pleasure, and of Gardens where enduring pleasure will be theirs: They will dwell therein forever. Verily in Allah’s presence is a reward, the greatest (of all).

Hijrah was one of the most important events in the history of Islam. It is for this reason `Umar adopted Hijrah date to calculate years. Muslims chose Hijrah as the focal point to reckon their chronology. In physical terms, Hijrah was a journey between two cities about 200 miles apart, but in its grand significance it marked the beginning of an era, a civilization, a culture and a history for the whole mankind. Islam progressed not only from the physical Hijrah, but because Muslims took Hijrah seriously in all its aspects and dimensions.

When the Prophet made the Hijrah from Makah to Medina, he did not just transfer his residence or took shelter in another city, but as soon as he arrived in Medina he began the transformation of that city in every aspect.

It is important for us to study and reflect on the things that he did in Medina. There are many lessons for us in that history and we can learn many things for our life.

1. Mosque: The Prophet first established a Masjid for the worship of Allah. He himself worked in carrying the stones and building that small, humble but most powerful structure.

2. Islamic school and educational institution for the community: The first school under the supervision of the Prophet was the school of Suffah. Later many other schools were opened. According to Maulana Shibli Numani, there were nine schools opened in Medina alone in the time of the Prophet.

3. Mu’akhah: He established brotherly relations between the Muhajirun and the Ansar. Masjid and Madrasah were not enough; what was also important was to have good relations between Muslims. They should have their brotherhood on the basis of faith, not on the basis of tribes as they used to have prior to Islam.

4. Inter community and Interfaith Relations: Prophet also established good relations with other communities living in Medina. There was a large Jewish community as well as some other Arab tribes who had not accepted Islam. The Prophet prepared a Mithaq (a covenant or a constitution) for relations between these communities.

5. Cleaning the City: Yathrib (previous name of Medina) was a dirty city. When the Sahabah came from Makah to Medina, many of them got sick and did not like that city. The Prophet asked them to clean the city and remove its dirt and filth. Aishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said: “We came to Medina and it was the most polluted land of Allah. The water there was most stinking. (Al-Bukhari, 1756)

6.Water System in the City: The Prophet asked the Sahabah to dig wells in different parts of the city. It is mentioned that more than 50 wells were opened in the city of Medina and there was enough clean water for every one.

7. Agriculture and Gardening: The Prophet encouraged the Sahabah to cultivate the land and make gardens. He told them that any one who would cultivate any dead land, would own it. Many people started working and cultivating and soon there was enough food for every one.

8. Poverty Eradication: In a short period of time it happened that there were no poor people in Medina. Every one had enough and the Prophet used to give gifts to coming delegations.

9. Safety, Security, Law and Order: Medina became the safest city in the world. There were very few incidents of theft, rape, drunkenness or murder and they were immediately taken care of.

In short, Hijrah teaches us that wherever Muslims go, they should bring goodness to that land. Muslims should work for both moral and material goodness of the society.

Assalamu alaikum

Imam Sedin Agic

No-15-2013\ 12-Muharram-1435

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s