Ramazan prvi dio, uvod

Ramazan prvi dio, uvod

fastingSvi mi znamo da je u godini 12 mjeseci, kao što to Allah dž,š, govori u suri Tevba 36: Uistinu! Broj mjeseci kod Allaha je dvanaest mjeseci u Knjizi Allahovoj, na Dan kad je stvorio nebesa i Zemlju. No, međutim jedini mjesec koji je spomenut po imenu je mjesec ramazan, kaže uzvišeni u suri Bekare 185: Mjesec ramazan je taj u kojem je spušten Kur’an.

Ni jedan drugi mjesec nije imenovan u Kur’anu, ne spominje se muharrem, ili safer niti bilo koji drugi, dakle ramazan je taj koji je spomenut i to zbog svoje važnosti i događaja koji se dsio u tom mjesecu, a to je svakako objava Kur’ana. Takođe što je interesantno, da je ovo ujedno i jedini ajet koji govori o obaveznosti posta u mjesecu ramazanu.

Zašto se zove mjesec ramazan? Kada pogledamo jezički, riječ ”ramadan” dolazi od riječe ”Ar-ramed” što znači ”jaka žega ili vrućina”.  U vrijeme Poslanika a,s, su koristili tu vrućinu ili žegu za pečenje mesa na kamenu, to su oni zvali ”kadid” ili suho meso.

Kako je nastao post? To možemo vidjeti sa islamskog aspekta, jer svaki akt ili djelo se stavlja na pravo mjesto, svi smo odprilike čuli islamske izraze ili terminologiju koja se koristi za određene stvari, poput; Farza, suneta, vadžiba, mustehaba, mekruha itd. Dakle ovo nam određuje svaki postupak, te tako prepoznajemo vrijednost djela. Farz je fundament ili temelj islama, kao što je: namaz, post, zekat i hadž.

Kako da indentifikujemo šta je farz (stroga naredba)? Kako da znamo da je nešto stroga obaveza, ova naredba je spomenuta u Kur’anu i tako razumijemo da je stroga naredba. U našem jeziku postoji, sadašnje, buduće i prošlo vrijeme. Tako isto nešto imamo i u arapskom jeziku. Pa ako koristimo gagol jesti ”ekele” na arapskom u sadašnjem vremenu, kažemo on jede, ”je’kulu” ili on je jeo ”ekele” u prošlom, ili jedi ”kul” kao imperativ

Kur’an nam kaže npr; Akimus-salate, ovo je imperativ što znači; obavite namaz, ovo je imperativ ili naredba da se obavlja namaz. Pa stoga sve što dolazi u ovoj formi je u kategorije stroge vjerske obaveze. U drugom primjeru je naredba davanja zekata, atuz-zekat, što znači dajite zekat. Takođe u Kur’anu možemo naići i na druge forme naredbi.

Dakle, postoji neki moderni muslimani koji pokušavaju da izbjegnu obavezni post, te govore svoj poznati nam izraz, pokaži mi gdje to piše u Kur’anu da ja moram postit? Ako pogledamo površinski nećemo ni naći u imperativnoj formi npr, postite ili ”sumu” na ar, kao što je naredba za namaz i zekat. No, međutim postoji nešto što se naziva ”Ilm usulul fikh” ili nauka o porjeklu propisa i razumjevanja.

Ova vrsta nauke nam upravo govori o ovim stvarima, govori nam da farz nemora uvjek doći u ovoj formi tj, imperetivu, takođe postoje i drugi vidovi imperetiva ili dođu u formi pasiva (trpna forma) kao što je kod posta. Kaže Allah dž,š,, u suri Bekare 183: O vi koji vjerujete! Propisuje vam se post, kao što je propisan onima prije vas, da biste se vi zaštitili. Ako bi ovaj ajet preveli doslovno onda bi ovako imao značenje; post vam je napisan, kao što je bio napisan i onima prije vas. Ali ovdje na arapskom je rečeno ”kutibe” što znači, propisuje vam se, ili naređuje vam se. Dakle Kur’an nije rekao; ketebellahu alejkumus-sijame, već da bi bilo sigurnije i jačeg značenja, zbog toga je stavljeno u pasivu (u trpnoj formi), što govori da je već bilo propisano i onima prije vas (kršćanima i židovima) zato je i vama obaveza. Ovakav slučaj naredbe ili imeretiva je i sa ”kisasom” (ili odmazdom): I propisali smo im u njoj da je duša za dušu, i oko za oko, i nos za nos, i uho za uho, i zub za zub, i (za) rane je odmazda. Sura Maide 45.

Naredba o hadžu je došlu u drugom obliku imperetiva ili naredbe kako kaže uzvišeni u suri Ali Imran 97: A radi Allaha je na ljudima hadždž Kuće, ko smogne njoj put. Ova vrsta forme je stavljena kao dug (zaduženje), i ona ima jače značenje, to je dug koji nam je svezan za vrat, i kojeg kad nam se ukaže prilika moramo obaviti, u protivnom ostaje nam kao dug. Da nam Allah pomogne i olakša da obavimo i petu dužnost amin.

U Kur’anu postoje tri ajeta koja nam dolaze u ovoj formi (kutibe) propisuje vam se, i sve tri se završavaju sa istim riječima. One se spominju u suri Bekare ajet 178, 180 i 183, prvi ajet govori o odmazdi (kisas), drugi govori i oporuci (vasijet) i treći govori o postu.

O vi koji vjerujete! Propisuje vam se post, kao što je propisan onima prije vas, da biste se vi zaštitili. Dakle ovaj ajet nam takođe govori da post nije propisan samo muslimanima, već je bio propisan i narodima prije poput kršćana i židova, u orginalnoj objavi koja je objavljena Isau i Musau a,s, post je bio naređen, ali u sadašnjem vremenu postoje razlika u postu kod krćana i židova, no, ono što je bitno jste da je izvor i naredba isti.

U islamu post je odricanje od svega, dok je kod kršćana odricanje samo od onog što ima dušu, ostalo im je dozvoljeno. Kur’an nam govori da je religija Muhammeda, Musa’a, Isa’a i Nuha a,s, jedna religija, kaže uzvišeni u suri Šura 42: Propisao vam je od vjere ono što je naložio Nuhu, i šta smo objavili tebi, i šta smo naložili Ibrahimu i Musau i Isau: dakle ne bi smjelo postojati razlike između objave, ali ako bi bilo kao što je to danas, onda slobodo možemo reći da je tu čovjek umješao svoje prtse.

Kada pogledamo praksu muslimana, vidjet ćemo da rade već 1435 godina, muslimani poste u mjesecu ramaza te se odriču i suzdržavaju od hrane i pića od zore do zalaska sunca, kaže uzvišeni u suri Bekare 187:  I jedite i pijte dok vi ne budete razlikovali nit bijelu od crne niti zore – zatim ispunite post do noći. Ovo je objava koja stoji ne promjenjena do kijametskog dana. Isti je slučaj i sa namazom, klanjamo stojeći, čineći ruku, zatim seddžde itd, sve to stoji bez modifikovanja od strane čovjeka, i niko nema autoritet da nešto promjeni ili modifikuje.

Ovaj način klanjanja bi trebao biti i kod kršćana i kod židova, ista je objava kao i izvor objave, Allah d,š, je naredio Isau a,s, namaz, kaže uzvišeni u suri Merjem 31: I učinio me blagoslovljenim ma gdje bio, i naredio mi salat i zekat dok sam živ. Zatim i Musau prije je bilo naređeno, kaže uzvišeni u suri Taha 14: Uistinu! Ja, Ja sam Allah! Nema boga osim Mene! Zato Mene obožavaj i obavljaj salat, da Me se sjetiš.

No ovo je danas kod njih nepoznato zbog korupiranosti Objave, zbog modifikovanja vjerskih propisa, kod njih je uz muziku, a šta vjera ima sa muzikom, klavirom itd. Kada neko od njih dođe kod nas u džamiju gledaju gdje je klavir organ itd. Kršćani po Mateju trebaju da poste 40 dana svake godine, ko od njih danas posti i koliko? Katolici recimo ne jedu meso petkom, to je neka vrsta posta, no, međutim papa je 1960 odobrio konzumiranje mesa petkom.

U islamu neme modificiranja i prepravljanja propisa, dodavanjem ili oduzimanjem, ma gdje bili. Zato nemožemo reći mi danas živimo u americi pa da namaz uskladimo ka vremenu i prostoru, ili post ili bilo koji propis, mada su neki to i uradili simbolično, dakle ako pogledamo koliko redovno se dolazi u džamiju i da su džamije poprilično prazne, i da većina dolazi samo džumom, onda vrlo lahko simbolički ali ne i stvarno liči na namaz kršćana i židova koji dolaze samo subotom i nedjeljom.

Definicija posta u islamu: riječ ”saum” ili post znači suzdržavanje i odricanje, dakle lingvistički označava prestanak radnje, kao što je i Mejrema a,s, kada se porodila i kad joj je naređeno da ne priča ni skim, i to je post od pričanja. O tome i Kur’an govori u  suri Merjem 26: Zato jedi i pij, i ohladi oko! Pa ako od smrtnika vidiš ijednog, tad reci: Uistinu! Ja sam se Milostivom zavjetovala postom, zato danas neću govoriti s čovjekom.

U vjerskom značenju post znači; suzdržavanje od svega što može proći do želudca putem prirodnih otvora, od zore do zalaska sunca tokom mjeseca ramazana. Mnogi danas griješe kada je u pitanju početak zapaštanja, jer mnogi koriste termin od izlaska do zalaska sunca. Jer nam i ajet govori tačno vrijeme zapaštanja: I jedite i pijte dok vi ne budete razlikovali nit bijelu od crne niti zore – zatim ispunite post do noći.

Molim Allaa da nas uputi, popravi stanje, i da nas i našu omladinu sačuva od zla i belaja, amin ja Rabbel alemin.

Ramadan (Part I) Introduction

fastingWe all know that there are 12 months in the year and the Qur’an says: “The number of months since the creation of earth and skies is 12 months in a year [9:36]. The only month, which is mentioned by name in the Qur’an, is the month of Ramadan: The month of Ramadan in which the Qur’an was revealed. [2:185]).

There is no mention in the Qur’an of Moharram, or Safar, or Rabi’a Awwal, or Rabi’a Thani or any of the other months. Ramadan is the only month mentioned and that is because of the importance of the event that took place during that month – the revelation of the Qur’an. Also this is the only Qur’anic verse which talks about the obligation of fasting during the month of Ramadan.

Why is that month called Ramadan? Linguistically speaking, the word Ramadan, they say, originated from the word ar–ramad meaning “the strong heat.” You know, in the time of the Prophet, peace be upon him, when they used to barbecue the meat they would put it on stones and the heat of the sun was so great it would barbeque the meat. They called this al qadeed (the dry meat). Imagine when you are fasting during the month of Ramadan and it is that hot; truly you are fulfilling the goal of fasting.

How did fasting come to be practiced? Let us dwell on the role of Islam, which puts every act of worship in its proper place. We hear certain terminologies used in Islamic Fiqh such as fardwajib,sunnah mu’akkadahsunnah ghar mu’akkadahmubahharam, and so on. The fard are four and they are considered to be the fundamentals of Islam: prayer (salah), fasting, zakat, and the pilgrimage. These are obligatory actions or fard. How do we identify the fard? What will tell us these actions are fard? These actions are mentioned in the Qur’an in a form of language indicating that they are obligatory.

In the English language a word is either in the past tense or in the present tense. In Arabic language we have three: present tense (mudari’), past tense (maadi), and imperative (amr). For example, in the case of the word “eat” we say ya’kul (present tense – he eats), and akala (past tense he ate) or kul (imperative; kul means I order you to eat).

The Qur’an says: aqeemu as–salah – (imperative form) and it means, establish prayer. That is an order. Anything coming in the form of an order in the Qur’an falls in the category of fard – you have to do it; it is an essential part of the faith. Another example of such an order is aatuz–zakah that means give the zakat (charity or almsgiving). But in the Qur’an there are other words, which signify an order.

Some of the Muslims nowadays who try to evade the obligation of fasting ask: “Show me in the Qur’an where it is ordered that I should fast.” With respect to the obligation of fasting there is no verse in the Qur’an, which says: Sumū (imperative Fast) as it says aqeemu as–salah. But there is a science in Islam, known as ‘Ilm usū–lul Fiqh – The Science of the Origin of the Jurisprudence; that type of science will talk about these things. It tells us that a fard does not always come in the form of an imperative order but it comes in some other forms as well. An obligation or fard in the Qur’an sometimes even comes in a passive voice such as in the case of fasting.

[2:183]: O you who believe! Fasting has been prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you. If we translate it literally, it means: Fasting is written for you as it was written for those before you. Kutiba is an Arabic word in the passive voice and it means: “to prescribe or to make it a written law”, while kataba is the active voice. The Qur’an did not say: “katabal–Lāhu’alaykum as–siyam [which would mean; God has prescribed for you]. But, to give it more assurance and more power, it was put in the passive voice so as to mean that it already has been done – has already been prescribed for you – it had taken place already; so it means start it immediately. So this is another form of an order in the Qur’an. This same terminology is used in another verse in the Qur’an, which is related to the Jews and the Torah, and it talks about qisās (just retribution) we have prescribed for them in the Torah an eye for an eye, an ear for an ear. [5:45]

The obligation of hajj in the Qur’an came in yet another form of an order. With regard to hajj the Qur’an does not say hujju [imperative form: perform hajj]. But it says: [3: 97]. Hujju is the imperative while hijju is the noun meaning “pilgrimage to” (the House of God). When it is put in this form it means that it has become a debt. It is more, or, stronger than hujju. It has become an obligation, a debt around the neck of the people to be paid to God, by going there once in a lifetime if you can afford it.

In the Qur’an three verses came in the form of kutib – prescription – and all three end by the same words. They are in Chapter Al Baqarah number 178, 180, and 183. The first verse is related to the crime of killing, the second one is related to waseeyah or will, and the third one is related to fasting.

Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed to those before you. It means that fasting is not limited to the Muslims only, but fasting was imposed upon the people who came before Islam. In the original message as revealed to Jesus and Moses, fasting was prescribed but, at the present time, there is a difference in our fasting and in the fasting in Christianity and Judaism although the source is one and the same, and the obligation is one and the same.

In Islam fasting is abstention from everything but in Christianity they fast from certain foods only – food that has a soul like the beef, the fish, the chicken etc.; they can eat anything else which has no soul. But the Qur’an informs us that the religion of Muhammad, of Moses, of Jesus, of Nuh, of Ibrahim, was one and the same. This is mentioned in Sura 42, Ash–Shurah. There should be, therefore, no difference between one faith and the other and if there is any conflict between one faith and the other, at our present time, it is the work of the human beings and God has no part in it because He is not supposed to be in conflict with Himself.

You know, the Muslims, let me concede, even in the 21th century, are characterized by something that distinguishes them from the others. Let me cite some examples. The Muslims at the present time fast in the month of Ramadan and abstain from all food and drink from the time of dawn till sunset. We find that the Qur’an says: And eat and drink until you can distinguish between the white thread and the black thread at the time of dawn; then complete your fast until the night appears. [2:187].

The Qur’an said this more than 1400 years ago and that is exactly what we are practicing nowadays and there is no power on earth to change or modify it to make allowances for environmental conditions or for age. In the case of prayers, our prayer, as Muslims, consists of standing up, bowing, prostrating, and sitting down and with every action we are reciting something from the Qur’an or we are pronouncing some type of du’a or supplication and there is no authority on earth that has the power to change or modify that prayer.

As a result, the prayer we are performing today is exactly the same as was performed 1400 years ago at the time of the Prophet Muhammad. If we come to the other faiths we find that some sort of modification has occurred over the centuries.

It is as simple as that. The music has nothing to do with the prayer. We cannot modify, we cannot say that we are living in America so we have to make our prayer fit the environment in which we are living, or, our fasting should fit the environment in which we are living since there is no Muslim on earth who has the authority to do that. Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you; means that the Christians and the Jews have an obligation of fasting.

Definition of Fasting in Islam: The word sawm (fast) in Arabic means “abstention.” Linguistically the word sawm means, “to stop doing something.” Every abstention, linguistically, could be called sawm or fasting. When Syyedna Maryam delivered her son, as a fatherless son, she was very apprehensive about-facing her people. If the people were to ask her from where she brought her baby, how was she going to answer? So God advised her to vow a fast from talking. The Qur’an states: When ever you see any human being signal to them I have vowed fasting to the Beneficent so I am not going to talk to anybody today. That is called fasting in the linguistic sense.

In the Islamic law or Sharī’ah fasting has a special definition. The Islamic Law defines the obligation of fasting as the abstention from everything that will go through your throat, and from the desires of this life, from the time of dawn till sunset every day during the month of Ramadan. From dawn to sunset; Dawn means two hours before sunrise. A lot of people, including Muslims, mistakenly say fasting is from “sunrise to sunset” or “from sun–up to sundown.” It is wrong. We have to be very careful what we say.

Fasting is supposed to be from dawn until sunset and dawn is two hours before sunrise. So if you abstain from eating at sunrise you are not fasting; you missed the day. A lot of newspapers, writing about the start of Ramadan, used to write that fasting was between sunrise to sunset or sun–up to sundown. The Qur’anic verse, which legislated for, this says: Eat and drink until you can distinguish between the white and the black thread due to the light of the dawn (Al–Fajr).

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